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Alnahedh, M and S Alsanousi (2020). Entrepreneurial spawning and the informal economy,
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 25(2), 1-18. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946720500089
Amaral, P. S., & Quintin, E. (2006). A competitive model of the informal sector. Journal of monetary Economics, 53(7), 1541-1553. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeemoneco/v_3a53_3ay_3a2006_3ai_3a7_3ap_3a1541-1553.htm Andrews, D, A Caldera Sanchez and A Johansson (2011).
Towards a Better Understanding of the Informal Economy. Paris: OECD. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254439427_Towards_a_Better_Understanding_of_the_Informal_Economy
Ault JK and A Spicer (2020). The formal institutional context of informal entrepreneurship: A cross-national, configurational-based perspective.
Research Policy, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2020.104160 Bao, W., Ni, J., & Singh, S. 2018. Informal lending in emerging markets. Marketing Science, 37(1): 123-137.
https://ideas.repec.org/a/inm/ormksc/v37y2018i1p123-137.html Baric, M and CC Williams (2013). Tackling the undeclared economy in Croatia.
South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, 11(1), 67–102. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/sebjournl/v_3a11_3ay_3a2013_3ai_3a1_3ap_3a7-36.htm
Becker, KF (2004).
The Informal Economy. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Agency. https://publikationer.sida.se/English/publications/120326/the-informal-economy
Bologna, J (2014).
The effect of informal employment and corruption on income levels in Brazil. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2489057 (last accessed 6 June 2019). http://busecon.wvu.edu/phd_economics/pdf/14-26.pdf
Castells, M and A Portes (1989). World underneath: The origins, dynamics and effects of the informal economy. In
The Informal Economy: Studies in Advanced and Less Developing Countries, A Portes, M Castells and L Benton (eds.), 19-41. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. https://www.wiego.org/publications/world-underneath-origins-dynamics-and-effects-informal-economy
Cristi, O., Amoros, J.E., and Couyoumdjian, J. P. (2012). Does it make sense to go against shadow entrepreneurs?,
Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/37465560/ECIE_2012-Proceedings-VasistaPaper_Published.pdf?1430387053=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DService_Design_Systems_Driven_Innovation.pdf&Expires=1605213801&Signature=OAXo~gmaNuvX5m2EsMtk4xMfkXvqO296n0mTSwbBQJrRjX7RmiJ9BREEw-K9VpDTfsLDF65~rM4UxQzz-NxbzmFJ7a-ruxCi-yr1Ja~LHdEX7GBRhpkuYqUcHWxgv~pl-F1gsOWz~OWhYlQy7pdVeJvMB9wHABD6om6ru9DRTXyhs0xF~xvhrpGAuU0U~32l9S~pjAbZ9a6WL~E-INARZ9gCOH~Dy3eJ9ycpmBkErNgr8rTFfI6XBeZd47p0Z6bFt5zNqQTixFidsvf03Sp8tt8cRoZmHpgLiue4fdUDfnyAaLKpCiQ1etiEJ-daX6YI0ok27mCS09Bk9vTEaemQlw__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA#page=138 De Beer, J, K Fu and S Wunsch-Vincent (2013).
The Informal Economy, Innovation and Intellectual Property: concepts, metrics and policy considerations. Geneva: Economic Research Working Paper no. 10, World Intellectual Property Organization. https://www.wipo.int/publications/en/details.jsp?id=3954&plang=EN
De Castro, JO, S Khavul and GD Bruton (2014). Shades of grey: How do informal firms navigate between macro and meso institutional environments?
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8(1), 75-94. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/sej.1172
Dibben, P and CC Williams (2012). Varieties of capitalism and employment relations: Informally dominated market economies.
Industrial Relations: A Review of Economy and Society, 51(S1), 563-82. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2012.00690.x
Dibben, P, G Wood and CC Williams (2015). Toward and against formalization: Regulation and change in informal work in Mozambique.
International Labour Review, 154(3), 373-92. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/74373378.pd
Donoso, S. B., Altunbaş, Y., & Kara, A. 2011. The rationale behind informal finance: Evidence from Roscas in Bolivia. The Journal of Developing Areas: 191-208.
Elston, J. A., Chen, S., & Weidinger, A. 2016. The role of informal capital on new venture formation and growth in China. Small Business Economics, 46(1): 79-91.
European Commission (2007).
Stepping up the fight against undeclared work. Brussels: European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=89&langId=en&newsId=135&furtherNews=yes
European Commission (2016).
Decision (EU) 2016/344 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on establishing a European Platform to enhance cooperation in tackling undeclared work. Brussels: European Commission. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32016D0344
Evans, M, S Syrett and CC Williams (2006).
Informal economic activities and deprived neighbourhoods. London: Department of Communities and Local Government. https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/3760/
Godfrey, P. C. (2011). Toward a Theory of the Informal Economy.
Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 231–277. https://doi.org/10.5465/19416520.2011.585818
Godfrey, PC (2015). Introduction: Why the informal economy matters to management. In
Management, Society, and the Informal Economy, PC Godfrey (ed.), 1-20. London: Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Management-Society-and-the-Informal-Economy/Godfrey/p/book/9781138617810#
Goldberg, P. K., & Pavcnik, N. (2003). The response of the informal sector to trade liberalization. Journal of development Economics, 72(2), 463-496. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeedeveco/v_3a72_3ay_3a2003_3ai_3a2_3ap_3a463-496.htm Helmke, G and S Levitsky (2004). Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda.
Perspectives on Politics, 2(6), 725-40. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3688540?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
Ihrig, J., & Moe, K. S. (2004). Lurking in the shadows: the informal sector and government policy. Journal of Development Economics, 73(2), 541-557. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeedeveco/v_3a73_3ay_3a2004_3ai_3a2_3ap_3a541-557.htm International Labour Organization (2015).
Transitioning from the informal to the formal economy. Geneva: ILO
https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_218128.pdf International Labour Organization (2018).
Women and men in the informal economy: statistical picture. Geneva: ILO. https://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_626831/lang--en/index.htm
Ketchen, DJ, RD Ireland and JW Webb (2014). Towards a research agenda for the informal economy: A survey of the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal’s Editorial Board,
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8, 95–100. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/sej.1175
Kislat, C. 2015. Why are informal loans still a big deal? Evidence from North-East Thailand. The Journal of Development Studies, 51(5): 569-585.
Knox, A. J., Bressers, H., Mohlakoana, N., & De Groot, J. (2019). Aspirations to grow: when micro-and informal enterprises in the street food sector speak for themselves.
Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 9-38. https://journal-jger.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40497-019-0161-7
Kus, B (2010). Regulatory governance and the informal economy: Cross-national comparisons.
Socio-Economic Review, 8(3), 487–510. https://digitalcollections.wesleyan.edu/object/govtfp-53
Kus, B (2014). The informal road to markets: Neoliberal reforms, private entrepreneurship and the informal economy in Turkey.
International Journal of Social Economics, 41(4), 278-93. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/emeijsepp/v_3a41_3ay_3a2014_3ai_3a4_3ap_3a278-293.htm
La Porta, R and A Shleifer (2014). Informality and development.
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3), 109-26. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jep.28.3.109
Linares, LA (2018). The paradoxes of informalizing street trade in the Latin American city.
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38(7-8), 651-672
https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJSSP-09-2017-0119/full/html Loayza, NV and J Rigolini (2011). Informal employment: Safety net or growth engine?
World Development, 39(9), 1503–1515. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeewdevel/v_3a39_3ay_3a2011_3ai_3a9_3ap_3a1503-1515.htm
Lubell, H. (1991) The Informal Sector in the 1980s and 1990s. Development Centre Studies, OECD, Paris.
https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19916711642 Madestam, A. 2014. Informal finance: A theory of moneylenders. Journal of Development Economics, 107: 157-174.
Mason, A. M., Dana, L. P. & Anderson R. B. (2018)
A study of enterprise in Rankin Inlet, Nunavut: Where subsistence self-employment meets formal entrepreneurship,” . In V. Ramadani, L.P. Dana, V. Ratten & A. Bexheti (Eds.), Informal ethnic entrepreneurship (Ch. 6). Springer. https://research.ou.nl/en/publications/a-study-of-enterprise-in-rankin-inlet-nunavut-where-subsistence-m/publications/
Matos, S., & Hall, J. (2020). An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in impoverished communities: when institutional factors and individual characteristics result in non-productive entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 32(1-2), 134-155. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08985626.2019.1640476?src=recsys Mead, DC and C Morrisson (1996). The informal sector elephant.
World Development, 24, 1611-1619. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeewdevel/v_3a24_3ay_3a1996_3ai_3a10_3ap_3a1611-1619.htm
Meyer, N., Meyer, D. F., & Molefe, K. N. (2016). Barriers to small informal business development and entrepreneurship: The case of the Emfuleni Region. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 13. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304669876_Barriers_to_small_informal_business_development_and_entrepreneurship_The_case_of_the_emfuleni_region
Mor, S. 2018. Choice of Small Business in Informal Sector: Case of India. In ‘Indian Economy: Tales of Transformation’ by Surender Mor, Kiran Lamba and Anju Rani, Vista International Publishers, New Delhi, 16-22.
Morris, M. H., & Pitt, L. F. (1995). Informal sector activity as entrepreneurship: Insights from a South African township. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(1), 78. https://www.ukesa.info/library/view/informal-sector-activity-as-entrepreneurship
Morris, M. H., Pitt, L. F., & Berthon, P. (1996). Entrepreneurial activity in the Third World informal sector: The view from Khayelitsha. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 2(1), 59-76. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/13552559610110727/full/html
Nassar, A., & Mehta, K. (2013). Are we formal yet? The evolving role of informal lending mechanisms to support entrepreneurship and poverty alleviation in central Kenya. Int. J. Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2(2), 109. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1032.3442&rep=rep1&type=pdf Passas, N., Hsu, S., & Li, J. 2012. Development and legitimacy of Chinese informal finance. The Pacific Review, 25(4): 495-511.
Portes, A (1994). The informal economy and its paradoxes. In
The Handbook of Economic Sociology, NJ Smelser and R Swedberg (eds.), 142-65. Princeton: Princeton University Press. https://blogs.eui.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/20/2013/11/Portes-Haller-The-Informal-Economy.pdf
Raijman, R. (2001). Mexican immigrants and informal self-employment in Chicago.
Human Organization, 60, 47–55. https://sfaajournals.net/doi/abs/10.17730/humo.60.1.emtq4bq4c70tqyqr
Raimi, L. and Aslani, B. (2019) Exploring the Contributions of Informal Ethnic Entrepreneurship to Economic Development in Nigeria. In: Ramadani, V., Dana, L.-P., Ratten, V., Bexheti, A. (Eds) Informal Ethnic Entrepreneurship- Future Research Paradigms for Creating Innovative Business Activity (pp.179-194) . Ram, M, P Edwards, T Jones and M Villaries-Varela (2017). From the informal economy to the meaning of informality: Developing theory on firms and their workers.
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37(7/8), 361-73. https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/401786/
Rauch, J. E. (1991). Modelling the informal sector formally. Journal of development Economics, 35(1), 33-47. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeedeveco/v_3a35_3ay_3a1991_3ai_3a1_3ap_3a33-47.htm Sahai, S. (2020). Determinants of growth for the informal sector micro-enterprises: an empirical study in India.
Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 31(2), 76-91. https://practicalactionpublishing.com/article/2992/determinants-of-growth-for-the-informal-sector-micro-enterprises-an-empirical-study-in-india
Sarreal, E. R. (2019). Motives of entrepreneurs in entering the informal economy using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data.
DLSU Business & Economics Review, 28(3), 131-144. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333201924_Motives_of_entrepreneurs_in_entering_the_informal_economy_using_the_global_entrepreneurship_monitor_GEM_data
Schneider, F., & Enste, D. H. (2000). Shadow economies: Size, causes, and consequences. Journal of economic literature, 38(1), 77-114. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/jel.38.1.77
Siqueira, A.C., Webb, J.W., & Bruton, G.D. 2016. Informal entrepreneurship and industry conditions.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40: 177-200 . https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/etap.12115
Small Business Council (2004).
Small business in the informal economy: making the transition to the formal economy. London: Small Business Council. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235298386_Small_Business_and_the_Informal_Economy_Evidence_from_the_UK
Sutter CJ, JW Webb, GM Kistruck, DJ Ketchen, and RD Ireland (2017). Transitioning entrepreneurs from informal to formal markets.
Journal of Business Venturing, 32, 420-442. https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbvent/v32y2017i4p420-442.html
Sutter, C.J., Webb, J.W., Kistruck, G.M., & Bailey, A.V. 2013. Entrepreneurs’ responses to semi-formal illegitimate institutional arrangements.
Journal of Business Venturing, 28: 743-758. https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.elsevier-bafb04db-62e4-38ff-b357-c14993e262e2 Thu, N. H., Duong, P. B., & Tho, N. H. 2020. Filling the voids left by the formal sector: informal borrowings by poor households in northern mountainous Vietnam. Agricultural Finance Review, 81(1): 94-113.
Ullah, S, CC Williams and B Wassim (2019). The impacts of informality on enterprise innovation, survival and performance: some evidence from Pakistan.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 24(3), 1-19. https://ideas.repec.org/a/wsi/jdexxx/v24y2019i03ns1084946719500158.html
Urbaeva, J., Jackson, T., & Park, D. 2018. Is Informal Financial Aid Good for Health? Evidence from Kyrgyzstan, a low-income post-socialist nation in Eurasia. Health & Social Work, 43(4): 226-234.
Vu, TT (2014).
Institutional Incongruence and the Informal Economy: an Empirical Analysis. Paper presented at the European Public Choice Society meeting, Cambridge. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Institutional-Incongruence-and-the-Informal-Economy-Vu/1d69d5ba94f650e372ea964358e2d186e964ff9c
Webb, J. W., Bruton, G. D., Tihanyi, L., & Ireland, R. D. (2013). Research on entrepreneurship in the informal economy: Framing a research agenda.
Journal of Business Venturing, 28(5), 598-614. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/eeejbvent/v_3a28_3ay_3a2013_3ai_3a5_3ap_3a598-614.htm
Webb, J. W., Tihanyi, L., Ireland, R. D., & Sirmon, D. G. (2009). You say illegal, I say legitimate: Entrepreneurship in the informal economy.
Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 492-510. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2009-10240-008
Webb, J.W., Khoury, T.K., & Hitt, M.A. 2019. The influence of formal and informal institutional voids on productive entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, formally accepted. https://ideas.repec.org/a/sae/entthe/v44y2020i3p504-526.html
Webb, J.W., Ireland, R.D., & Ketchen, D.J. 2014. Toward a greater understanding of entrepreneurship and strategy in the informal economy.
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8: 1-15 . https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/sej.1176 Welter, F, D Smallbone and A Pobol (2015). Entrepreneurial activity in the informal economy: A missing piece of the jigsaw puzzle.
Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 27(5-6), 292-306. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08985626.2015.1041259
Williams, CC (2013). Beyond the formal economy: Evaluating the level of employment in informal sector enterprises in global perspective.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 18(4), 1-19. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946713500271
Williams, CC (2014b). Out of the shadows: A classification of economies by the size and character of their informal sector.
Work, Employment and Society, 28(5), 735–753. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278151777_Out_of_the_shadows_a_classification_of_economies_by_the_size_and_character_of_their_informal_sector
Williams, CC (2017).
Entrepreneurship in the Informal Sector: an institutional perspective. London: Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Entrepreneurship-in-the-Informal-Sector-An-Institutional-Perspective/Williams/p/book/9780367873721
Williams, CC and A Martinez-Perez (2014a). Is the informal economy an incubator for new enterprise creation? a gender perspective.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 20(1), 4-19. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261860563_Is_the_informal_economy_an_incubator_for_new_enterprise_creation_A_gender_perspective
Williams, CC and A Martinez-Perez (2014b). Why do consumers purchase goods and services in the informal economy?
Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 802-806. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260314916_Why_do_consumers_purchase_goods_and_services_in_the_informal_economy
Williams, CC and A Martinez-Perez (2014c). Entrepreneurship in the informal economy: A product of too much or too little state intervention?
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 15(4), 227-37. https://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/96576/1/IJEI%20-%20Williams%20&%20Martinez.pdf
Williams, CC and AM Kedir (2018). Explaining cross-national variations in the prevalence of informal sector entrepreneurship: lessons from a survey of 142 countries.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 1-22. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/10.1142/S108494671850005X
Williams, CC and AV Horodnic (2019). Why is informal employment more common in some countries? An exploratory analysis of 112 countries,
Employee Relations, 41 (6), 1434–1450. https://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/140093/
Williams, CC and B Kosta (2019). Evaluating institutional theories of informal entrepreneurship: some lessons from Albania.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 24(1), 1-17. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946719500092
Williams, CC and IA Horodnic (2015a). Are marginalised populations more likely to engage in undeclared work in the Nordic Countries?
Sociological Research Online, 20 (3), 11. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.5153/sro.3719
Williams, CC and M Shahid (2015). Informal entrepreneurship and institutional theory: explaining the varying degrees of (in)formalisation of entrepreneurs in Pakistan.
Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 28(1-2), 1-25. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08985626.2014.963889
Williams, CC and S Bezeredi (2018). Evaluating the impact of informal sector competition on firm performance: some lessons from South-East Europe.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 23(4), 1-14. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946718500255
Williams, CC and U Laden (2019). Evaluating theorizations of informal sector entrepreneurship: some lessons from Zamfara, Nigeria.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 24(12), 1-17. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946719500225
Williams, CC, A Martinez-Perez and A Kedir (2017b). Informal entrepreneurship in developing economies: The impacts of starting-up unregistered on firm performance.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(5), 773-79. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/etap.12238
Williams, CC, K Adom and I Horodnic (2020). Determinants of the level of informalization of enterprises: some evidence from Accra, Ghana.
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 25(1), 1-24. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/10.1142/S1084946720500041
Williams, CC, P Bejakovic, D Mikulic, J Franic, A Kedir and IA Horodnic (2017a).
An evaluation of the scale of undeclared work in the European Union and its structural determinants: Estimates using the Labour Input Method. Brussels: European Commission. https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/8c3086e9-04a7-11e8-b8f5-01aa75ed71a1/language-en
Williams, CC, S Nadin and P Rodgers (2012). Evaluating competing theories of informal entrepreneurship: some lessons from Ukraine.
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 18(5), 528-43. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242343449_Evaluating_competing_theories_of_informal_entrepreneurship_Some_lessons_from_Ukraine
Williams, C. C. (2007). The nature of entrepreneurship in the informal sector: evidence from England. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 12(02), 239-254. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1084946707000654
Wilson, D. C., Velis, C., & Cheeseman, C. (2006). Role of informal sector recycling in waste management in developing countries. Habitat international, 30(4), 797-808. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224975666_Role_of_Informal_Sector_Recycling_in_Waste_Management_in_Developing_Countries Woodruff, C, S de Mel and D Mckenzie (2013). The demand for, and consequences of, formalization among informal firms in Sri Lanka.
Applied Economics, 5(2), 122-150. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/app.5.2.122